Retas Sejarah

Membaca tulisan Sdr. M. Madjid (TEMPO 25 Juni, Komentar), yang menyatakan tidak setuju warga Pancasilais membasmi para residivis (gali, preman, jeger, atau apa pun namanya) dengan cara seperti membabat rumput, saya berpendapat Sdr. Madjid perlu memahami Pancasila secara lebih mantap. Kemudian pengertian manusiawi jangan ditafsirkan secara sempit. Maaf, saya memvonis demikian karena saya pun perch ditatar P4 dan kebetulan mask Tiga Besar.

“Penembakan Gali: Pokoknya Kita Dukung”, Tempo, 8 Agustus 1983

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Following a wave of violent confrontations and tit-for-tat killings, the leaders of five mass organizations-cum-urban gangs in Greater Jakarta – Pemuda Pancasila (PP), Pemuda Panca Marga (PPM), the Betawi Brotherhood Forum (FBR), the Betawi People’s Forum (Forkabi), and Badan Pembina Provinsi Keluarga Banten (BPPKB) – agreed to a ceasefire in June 2012. The violence to be shut down had erupted in the late winter and early spring of 2012, escalating and taking on ethnic overtones in March 2012 when the leader of another gang John Refra, a.k.a. John Kei, was arrested on murder charges. Fronting as a debt-collecting business, Kei’s Key Youth Force (Amkei) was centered on Moluccan migrants in Jakarta and had been clashing with rival gangs from Flores. The June gang truce, facilitated by police negotiations and mediation, for a moment seemed to turn the violence off. The gang truce paralleled a ceasefire announced by two large gangs in El Salvador – an ocean away.

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The Indonesian Army and its precursor, the Dutch Colonial Army, had a long history of cooperation with shadowy criminal underworld gangs. The New Order regime, its intelligence organizations, the Army, political parties, and business owners all patronized petty criminals who functioned as their informants, protectors and enforcers, when needed. Soeharto’s master political strategist, Ali Moertopo, and his autonomous Opsus intelligence unit maintained an extensive network of informers and thugs. Moertopo’s bully boys provoked the January 1974 Malari riots to discredit rival Kopkamtib Commander Soemitro and engaged in arm twisting tactics to ensure Golkar victories in the 1971, 1977 and 1982 general elections. They intimidated opposition parties and frightened the public with threats of anarchy – a repeat of the 1965-1966 terror – if voters failed to fall in line behind Golkar.

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Indonesia is to revisit another violent chapter of the Soeharto regime with an investigation into a campaign of extra-judicial killings by the Indonesian military between 1983 and 1985. As many as 8,000 people may have been killed during the operation, which President Soeharto sanctioned as necessary to purge the nation of criminal elements.

Presenter: Katie Hamann (Radio Australia)

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Kopda Sofyan Lewa (35 tahun) dari Skodam I/Iskandar Muda yang menyebut dirinya anggota penembak misterius untuk menggaet seorang gadis, akhirnya dihukum 1 tahun 2 bulan penjara potongan tahanan, dengan perintah segera masuk.

“Mengaku Penembak Misterius untuk Mempersunting Gadis”, Masa Kini, 20 Oktober 1984

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Since the economic crisis started in 1997, an increasing number of people in Indonesia are thrown into the harsh reality of joblessness. The younger generation is most severely affected by the lack of employment or pertinent possibilities of income generation, and identity creation. More than 40 million people are without a reliable income from employment in Indonesia today, most of them young and male, having nothing to sell but their own muscles. Rates of criminality have increased, not least as a consequence of weakened state and police power since the fall of Soeharto’s authoritarian regime in 1998.

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One of the most remarkable episodes in the history of the New Order was the wave of state-sponsored executions of suspected criminals which took place between 1983 and 1985. In this two year period, over five thousand people, none of whom had been tried, lost their lives at the hands of highly-trained hit squads known popularly as Petrus, an acronym of penembak misterius or ‘mysterious gunmen’.

Much has been written about the repression of political dissidents in Indonesia and the military operations against armed opponents of the Indonesian state in such places as Irian Jaya and East Timor. What was unusual about the Petrus campaign is that violence was used not to silence criticism or to defend the Indonesian state from perceived threats to its integrity, but as an instrument of social policy. It was a carefully planned and orchestrated military- intelligence operation intended, in the words of President Suharto, as “shock therapy” to curb radically the incidence of violent crime.

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Para bekas “gali” di daerah Yogyakarta yang sudah melaporkan diri, menurut pemeriksaan lanjutan ternyata pernah melakukan tindakan kriminal berangsur dikirim ke Kores Kepolisian Kowil 96 Yogyakarta untuk diproses sesuai ketentuan yang berlaku.

“Bekas ‘Gali’ DIY Berangsur Diserahkan ke Polisi”, Kompas, 22 April 1983, h. 8

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