Retas Sejarah

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Index / Soeharto

Kepada yang bersikeras meyakini Orde Baru adalah pemerintah terbaik sepanjang sejarah, simaklah apa yang terjadi di sekitar berlangsungnya gerhana matahari total (GMT) pada 11 Juni 1983. Dalam peristiwa alam yang begitu menakjubkan itu, Orde Baru memperlihatkan dirinya dengan terus terang: rezim teror.

Orde Baru menyiapkan diri dengan sangat serius untuk menyambut GMT yang sangat dinantikan dunia itu. Di akhir tahun sempat muncul perkiraan akan ada satu juta lebih orang asing yang akan datang ke Indonesia khusus untuk menyaksikan GMT, baik para peneliti hingga turis biasa.

Untuk menyukseskan hajat istimewa itulah, muncul operasi yang kelak masyhur dengan sebutan “penembakan misterius” atau petrus: eksekusi mati (tanpa pengadilan) kepada mereka yang ditengarai sebagai preman, bromocorah, gali, begal, jegger–kebanyakan di antaranya dicirikan oleh, atau disederhanakan cirinya, tatto di tubuh.

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Peristiwa penembakan misterius yang terjadi pada 1982 – 1985 yang mengakibatkan terjadinya pembunuhan di luar proses hukum (extra judicial killing), penyiksaan, dan penghilangan orang secara paksa, dikategorikan sebagai bentuk-bentuk pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia yang Berat. Peristiwa ini ditanggapi oleh Komnas HAM dengan melaksanakan berbagai rangkaian kegiatan yaitu pengkajian yaitu dengan membentuk Tim Pengkajian Dugaan Pelanggaran Hak Asasi Manusia yang Berat Oleh Soeharto, di mana salah satu isu yang dikaji adalah Peristiwa Penembakan Misterius yang terjadi pada 1981-1985. Hasil kajian ini dibahas lebih lanjut di dalam Sidang Paripurna Komnas HAM yang memutuskan membentuk Tim Pendalaman Hasil Pengkajian tersebut. Pada 2008 Komnas HAM kembali membahas hasil pengkajian dan pendalaman tim sebelumnya, dan memutuskan untuk membentuk Tim Ad Hoc Penyelidikan Pelanggaran HAM yang Berat Peristiwa Penembakan Misterius Periode 1982-1985.

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Indonesia is to revisit another violent chapter of the Soeharto regime with an investigation into a campaign of extra-judicial killings by the Indonesian military between 1983 and 1985. As many as 8,000 people may have been killed during the operation, which President Soeharto sanctioned as necessary to purge the nation of criminal elements.

Presenter: Katie Hamann

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One of the most remarkable episodes in the history of the New Order was the wave of state-sponsored executions of suspected criminals which took place between 1983 and 1985. In this two year period, over five thousand people, none of whom had been tried, lost their lives at the hands of highly-trained hit squads known popularly as Petrus, an acronym of penembak misterius or ‘mysterious gunmen’.

Much has been written about the repression of political dissidents in Indonesia and the military operations against armed opponents of the Indonesian state in such places as Irian Jaya and East Timor. What was unusual about the Petrus campaign is that violence was used not to silence criticism or to defend the Indonesian state from perceived threats to its integrity, but as an instrument of social policy. It was a carefully planned and orchestrated military- intelligence operation intended, in the words of President Suharto, as “shock therapy” to curb radically the incidence of violent crime.

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For Americans Indonesia is probably the least talked about strategically important nation in Asia. It is the most populous Muslim majority nation in the world. Islamic terrorists from Indonesia played key roles in the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. The country’s importance goes beyond the Global War on Terrorism. Indonesia promises to be an economic powerhouse in the region, combining natural resources, an excellent location, and an ample supply of human capital. The Indonesian government is burdened, however, by a history of state terrorism to maintain order combined with serious short term and strategic threats.

This paper will examine the history of the Indonesian internal security infrastructure and its current transition.

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Pangkopkamtib Laksamana TNI Sudomo mengemukakan, selama Operasi Clurit berlangsung 43 orang pelaku kejahatan telah ditembak karena mereka melawan dan berusaha melarikan diri ketika ditangkap. Dari jumlah itu enan orang mati dan lainnya luka2.

“43 Orang Pelaku Kejahatan Ditembak, 6 Diantaranya Mati & Luka2”, Bernas, 17 Maret 1983

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Who knows what the army did with them there – what was clear was that the trucks went off fully loaded and came back empty (Pipit Rochijat, “Am I PKI or Non-PKI”, 1985).

In his wonderful, now classic essay “The Death of Luigi Trastulli,” Alessandro Portelli compares newspaper accounts of the police firing upon a crowd of street demonstrators in a small town in Italy in 1949 with the social memory of that killing. He finds the memories of the town’s working class community, which has eulogized the victim of that shooting in songs and stories, to be in error. Instead of using oral history to figure out “what really happened,” Portelli uses it to think about why people have misremembered the past. Portelli’s later book, The Order Has Been Carried Out, follows a similar procedure. It relies on written records to establish the facticity of an event: German troops occupying Rome in 1944 massacred 355 people as a collective punishment for an attack by the resistance that claimed 32 soldiers.

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The National Commission on Human Rights (Komnas HAM) announced on Tuesday that the summary execution-style killings between 1982 and 1985, known locally as penembakan misterius (mysterious shootings), or Petrus, were a gross violation of human rights as they involved systematic extra-judicial killing, torture and abduction.

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